Gastroenterology:Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.Gastroenterologists perform a number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including colonoscopy, endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound and liver biopsy.
We welcome eminent manuscripts of Research/ Review/ Case Studies/ Short Communications/ Opinions/ Letter to Editors/ Mini Reviews/ Presentations/ Perspective Studies etc. for publication. The wide scope of the journal will aid in contributing a great measure of scientific information related to the advances in towards better healthcare. The Journal is using double-blind peer-review for the manuscript processing. Each article undergoes this peer review process under the aegis of an assigned Editor. To be acceptable for publication, an article should be positively considered by two individual reviewers followed by the Editor’s consent.
Clinical Innovations in Gastroenterology: The evidence threshold for new technologies to be approved continues to rise, and the regulatory and reimbursement pathways, at times, lack transparency and clear innovation. Understanding innovation and changes in clinical practice is a key to keep gastroenterology as a viable specialty.
Tracking trends in Gastroenterology: Gastrointestinal and liver disease represents a significant global health problem, and cause approximately 8 million deaths per year worldwide. In developed countries, GI malignancies are among the leading causes of death. In developing countries, diarrheal diseases and viral liver infections are highly prevalent and are responsible for significant mortality. These and other diseases are tracked by international and regional health organizations. These tracking measures allow for some assessment of the global burden of GI diseases and may allow identification of important temporal trends.
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Some diseases which involve other parts of the GI tract can manifest in the mouth, alone or in combination, including:
Gastroesophageal reflux disease can cause acid erosion of the teeth and halitosis.
Oesophageal disease:Oesophageal diseases include a spectrum of disorders affecting the oesophagus. The most common condition of the oesophagus in Western countries is gastro esophageal reflux disease, which in chronic forms is thought to result in changes to the epithelium of the oesophagus, known as Barrett's oesophagus.
Gastric disease:Gastric diseases refer to diseases affecting the stomach. Inflammation of the stomach by infection from any cause is called gastritis, and when including other parts of the gastrointestinal tract called gastroenteritis. When gastritis persists in a chronic state, it is associated with several diseases, including atrophic gastritis, pyloric stenosis, andgastric cancer. Another common condition is gastric ulceration, peptic ulcers. Ulceration erodes the gastric mucosa, which protects the tissue of the stomach from the stomach acids. Peptic ulcers are most commonly caused by a bacterial Helicobacter pylori infection.
Intestinal disease:The small and large intestines may be affected by infectious, autoimmune, and physiological states. Inflammation of the intestines is called enterocolitis, which may lead todiarrhoea.
Diseases of the intestine may cause vomiting, diarrhoea or constipation, and altered stool, such as with blood in stool. Colonoscopy may be used to examine the large intestine, and a person's stool may be sent for culture and microscopy. Infectious disease may be treated with targeted antibiotics, and inflammatory bowel disease withimmunosuppression. Surgery may also be used to treat some causes of bowel obstruction.
Small intestine:The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Inflammation of the small intestine is called enteritis, which if localised to just part is called duodenitis,jejunitis and ileitis, respectively. Peptic ulcers are also common in the duodenum.
Chronic diseases of malabsorption may affect the small intestine, including the autoimmune coeliac disease, infective Tropical sprue, and congenital or surgical short bowel syndrome. Other rarer diseases affecting the small intestine include Curling's ulcer, blind loop syndrome, Milroy disease and Whipple's disease. Tumours of the small intestine include gastrointestinal stromal tumours, lipomas, hamartomas and carcinoid syndromes.
Large intestine:Diseases that affect the large intestine may affect it in whole or in part. Appendicitis is one such disease, caused by inflammation of the appendix. Generalised inflammation of the large intestine is referred to as colitis, which when caused be the bacteria Clostridium difficile is referred to as pseudomembranous colitis. Diverticulitis is a common cause of abdominal pain resulting from outpouchings that particularly affects the colon. Functional colonic diseases refer to disorders without a known cause, and include irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal pseudoobstruction.
Rectum and anus:Diseases affecting the rectum and anus are extremely common, especially in older adults. Hemorrhoids, vascular outpouchings of skin, are very common, as is pruritus, referring to anal itchiness. Other conditions, such as anal cancer may be associated with ulcerative colitis or with sexually transmitted infections such as HIV.
Pancreatology:Pancreatology focusses on recent advances in pancreatic basic research, genetics of the pancreatic diseases and its surgical management.
Pancreatitis:Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. There are two forms of pancreatitis, which are different in causes and symptoms, and require different treatment:
Acute pancreatitis is a rapid-onset inflammation of the pancreas, most frequently caused by alcoholism or gallstones.
Chronic pancreatitis is a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas.
Diabetes mellitus:|The pancreas is central in the pathophysiology of both major types of diabetes mellitus. In type 1 diabetes mellitus, there is direct damage to the endocrine pancreas that results in insufficient insulin synthesis and secretion. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which begins with insulin resistance, is characterized by the ultimate failure of pancreatic β cells to match insulin production with insulin demand.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency:Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is the inability to properly digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes made by the pancreas. EPI is found in humans afflicted with cystic fibrosis and Shwachman–Diamond syndrome.
Cystic fibrosis:Cystic fibrosis, is a hereditary disease that affects the entire body, causing progressive disability and early death. It is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome:Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a collection of findings in individuals with gastrinoma, a tumor of the gastrin-producing cells of the pancreas.
Hepatobilary Disorders:Hepatobiliary disease includes a heterogeneous group of diseases of the liver and biliary system caused by viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, neoplasia, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, poor nutrition, metabolic disorders, and cardiac failure.
The hepatobiliary system is made up of the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts. Conditions or diseases that cause harm to these areas, which can be life threatening, are referred to as hepatobiliary diseases.
The umbrella of diseases includes:Autoimmune liver diseases – occur when the liver tissues are attacked by the body’s immune system. This type of condition may be characterized as autoimmune hepatitis, biliary cirrhosis or sclerosing cholangitis.
Biliary strictures (both malignant and benign) – occur when the bile ducts become inflamed or injured. The ducts narrow and form a stricture. They are often caused by injury or cancer.
Cholangiocarcinoma (biliary tree cancer) – also known as bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma is usually a bile duct that presents a malignant tumor. Treating the disease requires removal and/or resection.
Chronic liver disease – also known as cirrhosis of the liver is a condition that marks the gradual destruction of the liver over time. Cirrhosis and fibrosis of the liver fall under the category of chronic liver diseases.
Hepatitis B & C – both are viruses that must be treated. Over time, serious damage to the liver may ensue. Many cases result in the requirement of a liver transplant. Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver.
Hepatocellular cancer – one of the most common types of liver cancers is hepatocellular cancer. The disease may develop from excessive and long-term alcohol use and viral hepatitis B and C.
Bile duct stones – are stones that occur within the bile duct, similar to a gallstone. They often start developing in the gallbladder and make their way into the bile duct.
Treatment for Hepatobiliary Diseases:Treatment plans vary from liver resection to transplant, depending on the severity of the damage. Biliary cancers may require chemotherapy, radiation and other forms of cancer treatments. Biliary disorders, such as bile duct strictures may be treated with surgical repair. Opening up blocked ducts and removing blockages often restore bile flow and relieve painful symptoms and jaundice caused by the liver disease.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
Umbrella of diseases
Autoimmune liver diseases