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General medicine and Clinical Practice : Open Access

About the Journal

General Medicine (or) Internal Medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment of diseases of the internal organs .It covers the studies of all aspects of General primary health care, community health, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases.

We welcome eminent manuscripts of Research/ Review/ Case Studies/ Short Communications/ Opinions/ Letter to Editors/ Mini Reviews/ Presentations/ Perspective Studies etc. for publication. The wide scope of the journal will aid in contributing a great measure of scientific information related to the advances in towards better healthcare. The Journal is using double-blind peer-review for the manuscript processing. Each article undergoes this peer review process under the aegis of an assigned Editor. To be acceptable for publication, an article should be positively considered by two individual reviewers followed by the Editor’s consent.

Publication decisions will be made based on relevance to practice, quality of methodology, and synthesis of findings with existing literature.

General Medicine covers following perspectives:

General Health

There are several parameters used to measure general health of a population, such as, Life expectancy (with international comparison), Healthy life expectancy, Years of potential life lost (YPLL) (with international comparison), Physically and mentally unhealthy days, Self-assessed health status, Limitation of activity and Chronic disease prevalence.

General health deals with body basics. Human anatomy and problems in human parts is the major concept of general health. Patient with any basic issues visits the primary general health center. Public health is a preliminary concept that has vital role in general health research.

Primary care

The World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary healthcare strategy. Primary care involves the widest scope of healthcare, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, and patients with all manner of acute and chronic physical, mental and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.

Epidemiology

Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. In short, epidemiology attempts to determine why certain people are getting ill.

It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.

Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.

Diagnosis

Is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs. It is most often referred to as diagnosis with the medical context being implicit. The information required for diagnosis is typically collected from a history and physical examination of the person seeking medical care. Often, one or more diagnostic procedures, such as diagnostic tests, are also done during the process. Sometimes posthumous diagnosis is considered a kind of medical diagnosis.

Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism (or mechanisms) that leads to the diseased state.

Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism by which bacteria cause infectious illness.

The pathogenic mechanisms of a disease (or condition) are set in motion by the underlying causes, which if controlled would allow the disease to be prevented.Often, a potential cause is identified by epidemiological observations before a pathological link can be drawn between the cause and the disease. The pathological perspective can be directly integrated into an epidemiological approach in the interdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology. Molecular pathological epidemiology can help to assess pathogenesis and causality by means of linking a potential risk factor to molecular pathologic signatures of a disease. Thus, the molecular pathological epidemiology paradigm can advance the area of causal inference.

Adolescent medicine

Adolescent medicine or hebiatrics is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development, generally ranging from the last years of elementary school until graduation from high school (some doctors in this subspecialty treat young adults attending college at area clinics, in the subfield of college health). Patients have generally entered puberty.

Issues with a high prevalence during adolescence are frequently addressed by providers. These include:

1.    Sexually transmitted disease

2.    Unintended pregnancy

3.    Substance abuse

4.    Menstrual disorders (such as amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding)

5.    Acne (working with specialists in dermatology who treat adolescents)

6.    Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (working with nutritionists and dieticians, and also specialists in pediatric mental health counseling, clinical psychology, and pediatric psychiatry, who work with adolescents)



7.    Certain mental illnesses (especially personality disorders, anxiety disorders, major depression and suicide, bipolar disorder, and certain types of schizophrenia; in concert with mental health counselors, clinical psychologists, and pediatric psychiatrists specializing in adolescent health care)



8.    Delayed or precocious puberty



Preventive Medicine

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health comprises a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, and lifestyle choices. Health, disease, and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.

Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. In the US about a quarter of the adult population have metabolic syndrome, and the prevalence increases with age, with racial and ethnic minorities being particularly affected.

Immunology infectious diseases

Immunology describes how the body copes with bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, cancer, and other diseases. It requires expertise and analysis from the level of the molecules and cells of the immune system all the way up to disease dynamics in populations and ecosystems.

Disease

The abnormal condition in human body by an external foreign intoxicant by any microbe, internal injuries or tumors is known as disease. The study is known as pathology. General medicine researchers have recognized some symptoms for different diseases and these are preliminary analyzing techniques.

Critical Care Medicine

Intensive care medicine or critical care medicine is a division of medicine related to diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated organ support and regular monitoring. Recognizing this situation is the responsibility of General Medicine doctor and further treatment will be suggested based on the case seriousness.

General Surgery

Is a preliminary surgery. General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland.

General Medicine Doctor

A general physician, or GP, is a medical doctor who specializes in many diseases affecting the body, whose primary treatment does not involve surgery.

GPs treat all medical conditions, including conditions that affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, haematological or endocrine systems.

Systemic Diseases

A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole. Some of systemic diseases includes: Mastocytosis , Chronic fatigue syndrome, Systemic vasculitis, Sarcoidosis, Hypothyroidism, Diabetes mellitus, Fibromyalgia, Adrenal insufficiency, coeliac disease.

Clinical Medicine

Clinical medicine is a field of medicine that deals primarily with the practice and study of medicine based on the direct examination of the patient.

In clinical medicine, medical practitioners assess patients in order to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease. They conduct medical interview, which includes the following:


•   Chief complaint

•   History of the complaint or illness (es)

•   Hobbies, occupation, and other current activities

•   Medications taken in by the patient, including pharmacological drugs, home remedies,     over-the-counter medication, and alternative remedies

•    Past medical history including previous hospitalizations, surgeries, injuries, diseases,  vaccinations, allergies, etc.

•   Social history such as birthplace, residence, etc.



•   Family history, and systems inquiry, such as recent and abrupt changes in weight, sleep quality, fevers, etc.

Treatment and diagnosis

Treatment and diagnosis are very important in general medicine, which preliminarily includes examining patients for preliminary symptoms. Mental and emotional analysis of a patient is also important in treatment and diagnosis process. Further, depending on the severity of the patient’s condition treatment and diagnosis are finalized. The treatment and diagnosis are very important in medical studies to recognize a disease and maintain health care in society.



                                          Clinical Practices





Clinical practice is defined as a model of practice that involves those activities with and on behalf of clients, especially those activities completed in the client's presence and with the client's collaboration. These activities are informed by an ecologically based biopsychosocial assessment.

Clinical Practice delivers a forum to address key issues in medical practice by discovering the preeminent patient-centered clinical research and presenting the statistics both directly, as clinical outcomes/discoveries, and in practice-oriented formats of direct application in day-to-day situations.

The following perspectives of clinical practices

Clinical practitioners:

A Clinical Practitioner is able to assess, diagnose and treat patients. When necessary, and appropriate, a Clinical Practitioner will prescribe medication, initiate, manage treatment and arrange referral.

General practitioner

General practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

Areas of Focus includes

Clinical trials

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements, and medical devices) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison.

Translational Science

The translational science spectrum represents each stage of research along the path from the biological basis of health and disease to interventions that improve the health of individuals and the public.

Genetics

 Is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.[1][2] It is generally considered a field of biology, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems.

Immunology

Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.

Anatomy and physiological studies

Personal perspectives in treating a disease

Multidisciplinary team approaches to care

Studies and case reports on oncology, radiology, immunology, neurophysiology, clinical biochemistry, bioengineering, ageing, allergy, cancer- diagnosis, treatments and therapy.

Epidemiology, prevention, socio-economic research, complications, new treatments, technologies and therapy.



Translational science, genetics, immunology, nutrition, psychosocial research


Areas Include Subjects Such As :

Primary care

General health

Health care

Medical practitioner

Clinical trails

Clinical practitioner

Novel therapies

Epidemiology

Translational Science

Preventive care

Preventive medicines

General practitioner

Diagnosis

Pharmacological drugs

Over-the-counter medication

Patient history

Systemic Diseases

Clinical medicines

Critical Care Medicine

Metabolic syndrome

Adolescent medicine

General Health

Pathogenesis

Prescription Drug

General Diagnosis

General Health

General Internal Medicine

General Medicine Doctor

Clinical practice guideline

Diagnostic Test

Observational study

Post-marketing surveillance

Prognosis