The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. The brain and spinal cord together make up the central nervous system (CNS).
In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone where it passes through the foramen magnum, and meets and enters the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae.
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The spine is made of 33 individual bones stacked one on top of the other. Ligaments and muscles connect the bones together and keep them aligned. The spinal column provides the main support for your body, allowing you to stand upright, bend, and twist. Protected deep inside the bones, the spinal cord connects your body to the brain, allowing movement of your arms and legs. Strong muscles and bones, flexible tendons and ligaments, and sensitive nerves contribute to a healthy spine.
Spinal Injuries & Fractures
Spine is made up of 26 bone discs called vertebrae. The vertebrae protect your spinal cord and allow you to stand and bend. A number of problems can change the structure of the spine or damage the vertebrae and surrounding tissue. They include Infections, Injuries, Tumors, Conditions, such as ankylosing spondylitis and scoliosis, Bone changes that come with age, such as spinal stenosis and herniated disks.
Spinal disease (also known as a dorsopathy) refers to a condition impairing the backbone. These include various diseases of the back or spine. Dorsalgia refers to those conditions causing back pain. Some other spinal diseases include spinal muscular atrophy, ankylosing spondylitis, lumbar spinal stenosis, spina bifida, spinal tumors, osteoporosis and cauda equina syndrome.
Cervical Spondylosis:The spinal cord may be compressed by bone
Spina bifida occurs in babies during pregnancy when the spinal column does not close completely, the way it is supposed to. This can lead to fluid on the brain, motor and sensory impairment, incontinence, learning disabilities, and depression.
Spinal stenosis occurs when an overgrowth of bone or tissue decreases the amount of space between the spinal bones, affecting the nerve roots. Symptoms range from numb legs and feet or paralysis when the upper spinal region or neck is affected.
Syringomyelia (SM) is a chronic spinal cord disorder that forms before birth or as a result of an accident, tumor or disease. The condition causes fluid to flow into the spinal cord, causing a cyst that grows and damages nerve fibers.
Transverse myelitis is a group of disorders associated with spinal cord swelling. It usually occurs along with a neural injury and can cause infection in less than a day.
Inflammatory Spinal Diseases
Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of the spinal cord, a major part of the central nervous system. Inflammation within the spinal cord interrupts communications between nerve fibers in the spinal cord and the rest of the body, affecting sensation and nerve signaling below the injury.
Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands.
Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system occur when cancer-fighting agents of the immune system also attack parts of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or muscle.
Spinal cord infarction
Spinal epidural hematoma
Multiple sclerosis is the most common immune-mediated neuromuscular disorder affecting the central nervous system. In 2015, about 2.3 million people were affected globally with rates varying widely in different regions and among different populations.
Sciatica: Sciatica is a common type of pain affecting the sciatic nerve, a large nerve extending from the lower back down the back of each leg.
Spinal Muscular Atrophy: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease affecting the part of the nervous system that controls voluntary muscle movement.
Spondylosis: Spondylosis refers to degenerative changes in the spine such as bone spurs and degenerating intervertebral discs between the vertebrae.
Current Research on Spinal Disease Treatment
Techniques in Spine surgery
Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery
Artificial Disc Surgery
Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Precision Radiation
Central nervous system
Cauda Equina Syndrome
Central Cord Syndrome
Spinal Cord Tumor
Lower Back Surgery
Spinal cord infarction
Spinal epidural hematoma