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Physiology of Sleep
Sleep is a naturally recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness, relatively inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, and reduced interactions with surroundings. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but is more easily reversed than the state of being comatose.
The internal circadian clock promotes sleep daily at night. The diverse purposes and mechanisms of sleep are the subject of substantial ongoing research. The advent of artificial light has substantially altered sleep timing in industrialized countries.
We welcome eminent manuscripts of Research/ Review/ Case Studies/ Short Communications/ Opinions/ Letter to Editors/ Mini Reviews/ Presentations/ Perspective Studies etc. for publication. The wide scope of the journal will aid in contributing a great measure of scientific information related to the advances in towards better healthcare. The Journal is using double-blind peer-review for the manuscript processing. Each article undergoes this peer review process under the aegis of an assigned Editor. To be acceptable for publication, an article should be positively considered by two individual reviewers followed by the Editor’s consent.
Sleep is divided into two broad types: non-rapid eye movement (non-REM or NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Non-REM and REM sleep are so different that physiologists identify them as distinct behavioral states. Non-REM sleep occurs first and after a transitional period is called slow-wave sleep or deep sleep. During this phase, body temperature and heart rate fall, and the brain uses less energy REM sleep, also known as paradoxical sleep, represents a smaller portion of total sleep time. It is the main occasion for dreams (or nightmares), and is associated with desynchronized and fast brain waves, eye movements, loss of muscle tone, and suspension of homeostasis.
Sleep Disorder: A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal. Some sleep disorders are serious enough to interfere with normal physical, mental, social and emotional functioning.
Sleep Medicine: Sleep medicine is a medical term which includes diagnosis and therapy of different sleep disorders and disturbances.
Sleep Apnea: Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep. Each pause can last for a few seconds to a few minutes and they happen many times a night.
Sleepwalking :Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness
Insomnia: This type of sleep disorder involves the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep.
Short sleeper, Child insomnia
Hypersomnia: Hypersomnias are a group of sleep disorders that causes a person to be excessively sleepy. People with a hypersomnia may fall asleep at times that are inconvenient or even dangerous, such as at work or while driving.
Narcolepsy: Narcolepsy is a chronic disorder of neurology involving the control of sleep and loss of brains ability to regulate wakefulness.
Parasomnia: Parasomnia is a class of sleep disorders that involve abnormal behaviors, movements, emotions, dreams and perceptions that occur while falling asleep or when you are sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep.
Idiopathic Hypersomnia: Idiopathic hypersomnia is a neurological disorder which is characterized primarily by excessive daytime sleepiness.
Kleine Levin Syndrome: Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS), also known as Sleeping Beauty syndrome, is a rare sleep disorder characterized by persistent episodic hypersomnia and cognitive or mood changes. Many patients also experience hyperphagia, hypersexuality and other symptoms.
Paediatric Sleep Disorder: Paediatric Sleep Disorder is common phenomenon interfere with emotional, psychological and neurocognitive disorders in infants, child and adolescents.
HypopneaSyndrome: Hypoapnea syndrome or Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.
DelayedSleep: Delayed Sleep is a sleep disorder where the major sleep episode is delayed by two or more hours of the regular bedtime which causes difficulty in awakening at the desired time.
SleepSnoring: Snoring is a common condition that can affects everyone, although it occurs more commonly in men and people who are obese. Snoring has a tendency to worsen with age. Snoring may occur at night or day times.
Sleep Deprivation: Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute. A chronic sleep-restricted state can cause fatigue, daytime sleepiness, clumsiness and weight loss or weight gain.
NightTerrors: Night terrors (sleep terrors) are a sleep disorder in which a person quickly wakes from sleep in a terrified state. Night terrors typically occur in children.
RestlessLegSyndrome: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder of the part of the nervous system that causes an urge to shake and move the legs. It is also considered as a sleep disorder since it usually interferes with sleep.
Sleep Paralysis: Sleep paralysis is simply a sign that your body is not moving smoothly in proper stages of sleep and sleep paralysis linked to deep underlying psychiatric problems. The person temporarily experiences an inability to speak and move.
Sleep related Groaning: Sleep related groaning, also called catathrenia, causes you to groan vocally while you sleep. Sleep related groaning is a long-lasting disorder that often occurs nightly.
Bruxism: Bruxism is an oral Para-functional activity in which over grinding, clenching or gnash of teeth occurs. It is a movement disorder related to sleep.
Child Sleep Apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep related breathing disorder. It is one component of a spectrum of sleep disordered breathing.
Infant sleep Apnea: Infant sleep apnea is a sleep related breathing disorder. It involves reductions and pauses in breathing that occur during an infant’s sleep.
Treatment for sleep disorders can vary depending on the type and underlying cause. However, it generally includes a combination of medical treatments and lifestyle changes.
Medical treatment for sleep disturbances might include any of the following:
• sleeping pills
• melatonin supplements
• allergy or cold medication
• medications for any underlying health issues
• breathing device or surgery (usually for sleep apnea)
• a dental guard (usually for teeth grinding)
Lifestyle modifications and cognitive behavioral treatments for sleep problems may include:
• Relaxation training
• Cognitive therapy
• Stimulus control (SC)
• Sleep restriction therapy (SRT)
• Sleep hygiene
Mixed (sleep) Apnea
Aging and Sleep
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Physiology of Sleep
Restless Leg Syndrome
Deep Sleep Therapy
Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
Paediatric Sleep Disorder
Restless Legs Syndrome
Shift Work Sleep Disorder
Sleep Disorders in Children
Sleep Disorders Treatment