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ISSN Online :  under process
Journal DOI :  10.31579/JOBS/2018
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Current Issue :  Volume 1 - Issue 1 - 2018
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Obesity and Bariatric Surgery : Open Access

About the Journal

Obesity:

Obesity is defined as the accumulation of the abnormal or excessive adipose tissue that may impair health.Bariatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the causes, prevention, and treatment of obesity.
Journal of  Obesity and Bariatrics Surgery is an open-access bimonthly peer-reviewed journal, providing an opportunity to scientists and researchers and elevate the advance and research developments. And it includes the topics of interest those which are involved in the appetite control, body weight,Bariatric Surgery, Childhood obesity, Genetics.
Journal of Obesity and Bariatrics Surgery is the usage of online manuscript submission for quick assessment processing.  Evaluate processing is carried out by using the editorial board members of the journal of  Obesity and Bariatrics Surgery or other experts; at the least one to two reviewers' approval accompanied by the editor, approval is needed for the popularity of any citable manuscript. The journal accepts original research article, review article, short communication, case report, letter-to-the-Editor and Editorials for publication in an open access platform .
The journal publishes recent findings on genetics of human obesity, obesity as a lifestyle disease and other physiological causes that leads to obesity. The journal also publishes advancements in the field of bariatric surgical methods including gastric banding surgeries, gastric bypass surgery and liposuction.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measurement tool of weight corrected for height and that reflects the overall body fat and has been the foremost accepted parameter for outlining over weight
A person with a BMI of 30 or more is generally considered obese. A person with a BMI equal to or more than 25 is considered overweight. Obesity may be a multi-factorial disorder that is commonly related to several different important diseases like polygenic disease, cardiovascular disease and different vas diseases, degenerative joint disease and some cancers.
Epidemological statistics:
Obesity may be allocated as the "New World Syndrome". Its prevalence is on continuous rise altogether age teams of the many of the developed countries within the world. Statistical data reveals that the staple of obesity has exaggerated from 12–20% in men and from 16–25% in girls over the last 10 years. Recent studies counsel that just about 15–20% of the middle aged European population area unit weighty, which in USA alone it's liable for as many as 3,00,000 premature deaths annually .Obsessed patients are related to exaggerated risk of morbidity and mortality relative to those with ideal weight. Even modest weight reduction within the range of 5–10% of the initial weight is related to important enhancements during a wide selection of co-morbid conditions.
Common causes of Obesity:
Genetics: There is a lot of possible to develop obesity if one or both parents are fat. Genetics have an additional effect on hormones concerned in fat regulation. One genetic reason for obesity is leptin deficiency The gene is present in everyone, but a mutation can cause the person carrying the gene to become obese.
Physiological influences: Some researchers believe that every person has a predetermined weight that the body resists moving away from. Also, people of the same age, sex and body size often have different metabolic rates. This means their bodies’ burn food differently.
A Diet High in Easy Carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates increase blood sugar levels that successively stimulate insulin unleash by the pancreas, and insulin promotes the expansion of fat tissue and might cause weight gain.
Food intake and eating disorders: Obesity also can result from eating disorders, such as a tendency to binge.
Physical Inactivity:
Inactive individuals burn fewer calories than people who are active. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) showed that physical inactivity was powerfully correlative with weight gain in all sexes.
Medications that make patients put on weight:
Medications related to weight gain embrace bound antidepressants, antidibetic agents, hypoglycaemic agent, bound hormones like oral contraceptives, and most corticosteroids. Weight gain may moreover be seen with some high blood pressure medications and antihistamines.

Childhood Obesity:
Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that occurs when a children is above normal weight for his age and height.
According to the world survey statistics, childhood obesity statistics has dramatically multiplied in kids and quadrupled in teenagers in the previous 30 years. The rate of youngsters aged 6–11 years in the United States who were obese expanded from 7% in 1980 to about 18% in 2012. In 2012, more than 33% of kids and youths were overweight or obese. In some of the countries like Virginia the obesity rate is steadily increasing but the obesity statistic rate two times more than the new national average. But according to the child obesity statistics there is no change in obesity prevalence in youth or adults between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Globally, in 2016 the number of overweight children under the age of five, is estimated to be over 41 million. Almost half of all overweight children under 5 lived in Asia and one quarter lived in Africa.
The main cause for childhood obesity is processed foods. Childhood obesity can affect the children in long run and they might suffer from physical and social complications.
Treatment:
Weight reduction is achieved by:
•  Consuming fewer calories
•  Increasing activity and exercise
•  A modified diet
•  Regular exercise
•  Non-prescription orlistat
•  Other non-prescription diet pills
•  Prescription diet pills

Bariatrics Surgery:

In general, weight-loss surgery (called bariatric surgery) may be considered if your BMI is 40 or greater, or your BMI is 30-35 or greater and you have at least one medical condition directly related to obesity.
Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).The more common types of surgical procedures include:
Gastroplasty: also known as stomach stapling. A surgeon creates a small pouch in the stomach that allows only limited amounts of food to be eaten at one time.
Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: A surgeon places an adjustable band around the stomach with minimally invasive surgery.
Gastric bypass : This is the most effective weight loss surgery. However, it also carries a greater risk of complications, both short term and long term. A surgeon creates a small pouch in the upper part of the stomach. A hole is made in the small intestine beyond the normal stomach attachment. The pouch is attached to the hole, bypassing the rest of the stomach and the top part of the small intestine.
Sleeve Gastrostomy:  Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical weight-loss procedure in which the  stomach is reduced to about 15% of its original size, by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach along the greater curvature. The procedure is generally performed laparoscopically and is irreversible.
Adjustable Gastric Band: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is surgery to make the stomach smaller. It is done to help people lose weight. The surgery limits the amount of food the stomach can hold. This helps you eat less and feel full more quickly.It was done by making incisions in the belly.
Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD/DS) Gastric Bypass:
With the Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch (BPD-DS), about 50-60% of the stomach is removed and the duodenum is detached from the stomach.
The BPD-DS is accomplished laparoscopically (minimally invasive) in most cases.
Liposuction:
Liposuction is essentially a weight loss surgery but often intended for cosmetic purposes. The surgery involves reshaping a portion of the body by removing the extra fat in the region. The surgery can be done with or without being accompanied by plastic surgery.

Areas Include Subjects Such As

Adipose tissue

Calorie balance

Gastrointestinal surgery

Overweight

Stomach

Surgery

Taste

Weight loss

Weight Watchers

Adipose tissue

Anorexia nervosa

Bariatric surgery

Body mass index

Calorie

Carbohydrate

Complex carbohydrates

Diabetes mellitus

Diet

Energy expenditureFat

Fiber (dietary)

Gastrointestinal surgery (to treat obesity)

Gestational diabetes

Glucose

HDL

Healthy weight

High blood pressure

High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

Hydrogenation

Insulin

LDL

Lipoprotein

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)

Metabolism

METs (metabolic equivalents)

Monounsaturated fat

Nutrition

Overweight

Pancreas

Physical activity

Polyunsaturated fat

Protein

Registered dietitian (R.D.)

Saturated fat

“Set point” theory

Simple carbohydrate

Trans fatty acids

Underwater weighing

Unsaturated fat

Very-low calorie diet (VLCD)

Waist circumference

Weight control

Weight-cycling